Monday, June 13, 2016

VHDL Processes for Pulsing Multiple Lasers at Different Frequencies on Altera FPGA


DE1-SoC GPIO Pins connected to 780nm Infrared Laser Diodes, 660nm Red Laser Diodes, and Oscilloscope

The following VHDL processes pulse the GPIO pins at different frequencies on the Altera DE1-SoC using multiple Phase-Locked Loops.  Multiple Infrared Laser Diodes are connected to the GPIO banks and pulsed at a 50% duty cycle with 16mA across 3.3V.  Each GPIO bank on the DE1-SoC has 36 pins. Pin 1 is pulsed at 20hz from GPIO bank 0, and pins 0 and 1 are pulsed at 30hz from GPIO bank 1.  A direct mode PLL with locked output was configured using the Altera Quartus Prime MegaWizard.  The PLL reference clock frequency is set to 50mhz, the output clock frequency is set to 50mhz, and the duty cycle is set to 50%.  The pin mappings for GPIO banks 0 and 1 are documented on the DE1-SoC datasheet.

Pulsed Laser Diodes via GPIO pins on DE1-SoC FPGA

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- --Copyright (C) 2016. Bryan R. Hinton
- --All rights reserved.
- --
- --Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
- --modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- --are met:
- --1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
- --   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
- --2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
- --   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
- --   documentation  and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
- --3. Neither the names of the copyright holders nor the names of any
- --   contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this
- --   software without specific prior written permission.
- --
- --THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
- --AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
- --IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
- --ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
- --LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
- --CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
- --SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
- --INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
- --CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
- --ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- --POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

- ---------------------
- -- CLOCK A PROCESS --
- ---------------------
- -- INPUT: direct mode pll with locked output 
- -- and reference clock frequency set to 50mhz, 
- -- output clock frequency set to 50mhz with 50% duty 
- -- cycle and output frequency scaled by freq divider constant
- -------------------------------------------------------------
clk_a_process : process (lkd_pll_clk_a)
begin
 if rising_edge(lkd_pll_clk_a) then
  if (cycle_ctr_a < FREQ_A_DIVIDER) then
   cycle_ctr_a <= cycle_ctr_a + 1;
  else
   cycle_ctr_a <= 0;
  end if;
 end if;
end process clk_a_process;
 
- ---------------------
- -- CLOCK B PROCESS --
- ---------------------
- -- INPUT: direct mode pll with locked output 
- -- and reference clock frequency set to 50mhz, 
- -- output clock frequency set to 50mhz with 50% duty 
- -- cycle and output frequency scaled by freq divider constant
- -------------------------------------------------------------
clk_b_process : process (lkd_pll_clk_b)
begin
      if rising_edge(lkd_pll_clk_b) then
  if (cycle_ctr_b < FREQ_B_DIVIDER) then
   cycle_ctr_b <= cycle_ctr_b + 1;
  else
   cycle_ctr_b <= 0;
          end if;
     end if;
end process clk_b_process;
 
- ---------------------
- -- GPIO A PROCESS --
- ---------------------
- -- INPUT: direct mode pll with locked output
- --------------------------------------------------------- 
gpio_a_process : process (lkd_pll_clk_a)
begin
 if rising_edge(lkd_pll_clk_a) then
         if (cycle_ctr_a = 0) then
   -- toggle gpio pin1 from gpio_0
   gpio_sig_0(1) <= NOT gpio_sig_0(1);
          end if;
       end if;
end process gpio_a_process;

- ---------------------
- -- GPIO B PROCESS --
- ---------------------
- -- INPUT: direct mode pll with locked output
- ---------------------------------------------------------
gpio_b_process : process (lkd_pll_clk_b)
begin
 if rising_edge(lkd_pll_clk_b) then
         if (cycle_ctr_b = 0) then
   -- toggle gpio pins 0 and 1 from gpio_1
   gpio_sig_1 <= NOT gpio_sig_1(1 downto 0);
          end if;
       end if;
end process gpio_b_process;
 
GPIO_0 <= gpio_sig_0;
GPIO_1 <= gpio_sig_1;

end gpioarch;
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DE1-SoC GPIO Bank 0 Pin 1

DE1-SoC GPIO Bank 1 Pins 0 and 1

Thursday, June 2, 2016

FPGA Audio Processing with the Cyclone V Dual-Core ARM Cortex-A9

The DE1-SoC FPGA Development board from Terasic is powered by an integrated Altera Cyclone V FPGA and ARM MPCore Cortex-A9 processor.  The FPGA and ARM core are connected by a high-speed interconnect fabric so you can boot Linux on the ARM core and then talk to the FPGA.
The below configuration was built from the Terasic Design Reference sources.

The DE1-SoC board below has been programmed via Quartus Prime running on Fedora 23, 64-bit Linux.  The FPGA bitstream was compiled from the Terasic Audio codec design reference.  After the bitstream was loaded on to the FPGA over the USB blaster II interface, the NIOS II command shell was used to load the NIOS II software image onto the chip.  A menu-driven, debug interface is running from a terminal on the host via the NIOS II shell with the target connected over the USB Blaster II interface.

A low-level hardware abstraction layer was programmed in C to configure the on-board audio codec chip.  The NIOS II chip is stored in on-chip memory and a PLL driven, clock signal is fed into the audio chip. The Verilog code for the hardware design was generated from Qsys.  The design supports configurable sample rates, mic in, and line in/out.

Additional components are connected to the DE1-SoC board in this photo.  The Linear DC934A (LTC2607) DAC is connected to the DE1-SoC and an oscilloscope is connected to the ground and vref pins on the DAC.

The DC934A features an LTC2607 16-Bit Dual DAC with i2c interface and an LTC2422 2-Channel 20-Bit uPower No Latency Delta Sigma ADC.

3.5mm audio cables are connected to the mic in and line out ports, respectively.  The DE1-SoC is connected to an external display over VGA so that a local console can be managed via a connected keyboard and mouse when Linux is booted from uSD.

With GPIO pins accessible via the GPIO 0 and 1 breakouts, external LEDs can be pulsed directly from the Hard Processor System (HPS), FPGA, or the FPGA via the HPS.